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Replacement surgeries generally involve the removal of defective parts (for the knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow) from patients in order to improve their quality of life. Manisundaram Medical Mission Hospital has extensive experience in this field.

How is replacement done?

Parts of an arthritic or diseased joint are surgically removed and replaced with prosthetic devices made of metal, plastic, or ceramic during a total joint replacement. The prosthesis is made to mimic the motion of a healthy, normal joint.

The most frequent joint replacements are on the hip and knee, although other joints, such as the ankle, wrist, shoulder, and elbow, can also undergo replacement surgery.

What exactly is a Unicondylar Knee Replacement?

Unicondylar / Unicompartmental Knee Replacement (UKR) simply refers to the replacement of a portion of the knee joint through a smaller incision than would be utilised for a total knee replacement.

Degenerative osteoarthritis normally starts in one compartment of the knee, usually the inner/medial side, and if the illness is detected early, the patient can avoid a more invasive Total Knee Replacement procedure.

  • Incision is smaller.
  • Scar is smaller.
  • Blood transfusions are only infrequently required.
  • Shorter hospital stay, less bone removed, and faster recuperation and rehabilitation.
  • Better movements are obtained.
  • It feels more like a regular knee.
  • Physiotherapy is no longer required.
  • More active than before a total knee replacement.
  • If necessary, it is possible to convert to total knee replacement.

Hip replacement:

The Hip Joint is a ball and socket joint composed of a spherical structure (the head of the Femur) and a socket (called Acetabulum). The bones are coated with a smooth layer called articular cartilage, which allows the bearing surfaces to move smoothly, painlessly, and with minimum friction. The Hip Joint is stable as well as mobile. The hip joint is surrounded by layers of tissues called synovium, capsule, ligaments, muscles, fat, and skin from the inside out. For lubrication, the synovium produces synovial fluid. The capsule and ligaments are the primary hip stabilisers, providing support while allowing for a restricted range of motion. They prevent the joint from dislocating. Muscles are secondary stabilisers that also help with movement.

Knee replacement

The knee is a hinge joint, similar to door hinges, that allows just one way bending. It does, however, allow for some side-to-side twisting. It enables mobility and weight bearing.

The knee is made up of the thigh bone (named the femur), the shin bone (called the tibia), and the kneecap (called patella).

To allow smooth, low-friction movement of the bearing surfaces, the bones are coated with a smooth layer called articular cartilage. The medial and lateral menisci are two floating cartilages that act as stabilisers, shock absorbers, and improve the surface area of contact for stress distribution between the femur and tibia. Two ligaments outside the joint termed the medial and lateral collateral ligaments support the knee and prevent inappropriate side-to-side movement.

The ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) and PCL (posterior cruciate ligament) are two ligaments inside the joint that prevent instability/buckling and improper anterior/posterior translation of the bones on each other.Secondary stabilisers are the muscles around the knee.